Responsive Web Design (RWD) is a strategy that allows developers to create webpages that adjust their layout according to available screen size. Since modern web applications must format correctly on the small displays of mobile devices up to the large displays on desktop computers, and given this dramatic difference in screen space, Responsive Layout Failures (RLFs) — visual discrepancies that are only apparent at certain screen sizes — can easily creep into live production webpages. These can include, for example, HTML elements protruding off the edge of the page or into one another as layout space becomes scarce. This leaves webpages looking unprofessional at best and non-functional at worst. This paper presents a technique for repairing RLFs, implemented into a tool called LayoutDR. After detecting an RLF, LayoutDR harvests layouts from the page’s responsive design that are closest to the point of failure, but where the RLF does not occur. It then transforms these layouts so that they can be transplanted over the failure, effectively “hiding” the original RLF from the end user. We evaluated LayoutDR on 19 subjects, containing 55 RLFs in total. LayoutDR could find a suitable fix for each of them. When we conducted a human study of the repairs, 92% of the participants preferred the repaired version of the page compared to the original containing the RLF.
Althomali, I., Kapfhammer, G. M., & McMinn, P. (2022). Automated repair of responsive web page layouts. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation.
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