Computer Science 441

Principles of Distributed Systems

Gregory M. Kapfhammer


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Color Scheme

Key Concept

Corresponding Diagram

In-Class Discussion

In-Class Activity

Details in the Textbook

Application Areas in Distributed Systems

Object Orientation

Distributed Objects

Object = state + behavior

An object encapsulates state

Methods manipulate and access the state

Methods are made available by an interface

Distributed versus local objects?


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Refer to Figure 10-1 for additional details!

Where is the state of a "remote" object?

Where is the state of a "distributed" object?

Distributed Objects

Compile-time versus run-time

Persistent versus transient

Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs)

Host objects in an EJB server

Globe distributed shared objects


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Refer to Figure 10-5 for an object server

Purpose of the demultiplexer?

Before an RPC, there must be locating

Before an RPC, there must be a binding

Implicit versus explicit binding

Differences between approaches in Figure 10-7?

Static versus dynamic invocation

fobject.append(int)

invoke(fobject, id(append), int)

Have we seen one of these before?

Java RMI

Remote classes

Remote methods

Remote exceptions

Serialization

Stubs

Generated at compile-time

Support from the JVM

RMI Registry

Registration and lookup

Synchronize to support concurrency

Lock on the side of the client or the server?

What are the trade-offs of the two approaches?

What method is adopted by Java RMI?

Replicated method invocations

Fault tolerance in Java

See Figures 10-17 and 10-18 for more details!

Distributed security

Security challenges?

Hijacking the lookup service!

Principle: separate policy from mechanism

Security policy in Java RMI

Security Policy

          grant codeBase "file:simple-client.jar" {
              permission java.security.AllPermission;
          };
          grant codeBase "file:simple-server.jar" {
              permission java.security.AllPermission;
          };
          

Security Policy

          grant {
               permission java.net.SocketPermission
               "*:1024-65535",
               "connect,accept,resolve";
               permission java.net.SocketPermission
               "*:80", "connect";
               permission java.awt.AWTPermission
               "accessEventQueue";
               permission java.awt.AWTPermission
               "showWindowWithoutWarningBanner";
          };
          

Authentication

Authorization

Digital signatures

Trusted third-party servers

Questions on distributed object-based systems?